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Materi Narrative Text: Contoh dan Latihan Soal
Narratve atau istilah Bahasa Indonesianya adalah narasi, adalah suatu cerita atau deskripsi suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang bersifat fiktif.
Dari penjelasan tersebut kita dapat memahami pengertian yang lebih sederhana bahwa narasi adalah sebuah cerita atau dongeng.
Tidak jauh berbeda dengan pengertian dalam Bahasa Indonesia, dalam Bahasa Inggris narrative juga memiliki makna yang sama.
Narrative text adalah jenis teks yang berisi tentang sebuah cerita fiksi atau dongeng. Ada berbagai jenis cerita fiktif yang kita ketahui selama ini seperti dongeng, cerita rakyat, kisah mitos atau legenda, dongeng tentang hewan atau dikenal dengan istilah fable, kisah peri, ataupun cerita-cerita lain dari mancanegara yang sangat populer seperti Cinderella, Snow White, Robin Hood, Moana, dan lain sebagainya.
Semua jenis cerita tersebut merupakan jenis cerita yang biasa kita temukan pada narrative text.
Penjelasan awal tersebut mungkin sudah cukup memberikan gambaran awal tentang apa itu narrative text, selanjutnya kita akan bahas lebih rinci lagi mengenai narrative text, dimulai dari fungsi, generic structure, ciri-ciri, beserta contoh narrative text.
Supaya dapat mengidentifikasi jenis teks, kita harus mengetahui struktur teks tersebut.
Hal tersebut sangat penting sebagai guideline pada saat kita ingin menyusun sebuah teks, sehingga teks yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku.
Function of Narrative Text
Narrative text berfungsi untuk menghibur para pembaca atau pendengar melalui kisah-kisah yang diberikan.
Kisah-kisah yang terdapat dalam narrative text biasanya berupa kisah khayalan atau fiksi, dimana dalam alur ceritanya terdapat beberapa konflik atau masalah yang terjadi kemudian diakhiri dengan sebuah penyelesaian atau akhir dari masalah tersebut.
Generic Structure / Struktur Teks
Struktur teks dari Narrative text biasanya terdiri dari tiga bagian yaitu Orientation, Complication, dan Resolution.
Pada bagian orientation, biasanya pada paragraf pertama, paragraf ini biasanya menceritakan tentang setting berupa tempat dan waktu dari kisah yang terjadi berikut pengenalan beberapa tokoh yang terdapat dalam kisah tersebut.
Bagian Complication merupakan paragraf yang berisi tentang masalah atau konfilk yang mulai muncul dan dialami oleh tokoh dalam cerita.
Complication bisa terdiri hanya satu paragraf ataupun beberapa paragraf tergantung dari panjang atau pendeknya sebuah cerita.
Bagian Complication merupakan bagian yang menjadi daya tarik dalam sebuah narrative text.
Resolution merupakan bagian akhir dari cerita, biasanya berisi tentang penyelesaian atau akhir dari masalah yang terjadi pada bagian complication.
Reolution juga sekaligus menjadi penutup dari sebuah cerita.
selain ke tiga bagian tersebut ada satu baigan tambahan lain yang bersifat optional karena bagian ini tidak selalu ada dalam setiap cerita pada narrative text, bagian tersebut adalah
Re-oreintation biasanya berisi kalimat penutup yang menceritakan kondisi terakhir tokoh utama dalam cerita, atau re-orientation juga dapat berisi pesan moral dari cerita.
Ciri-Ciri Narrative Text
Setiap text dalam Bahasa Inggris memiliki ciri masing-masing, hal tersebut yang membedakan dengan jenis teks yang lain, sekaligus menjadi salah satu cara untuk mengidentifikasi sebuah teks.
Untuk narrative text ciri utama yang dapat diidentifiasi adalah penggunaan Simple Past Tense.
Kenapa simple past tense digunakan dalam narrative text karena simple past tense merupakan jenis tenses yang memiliki fungsi untuk menceritakan kejadian yang sudah lampau dan dalam penggunaannya bentuk tenses past juga memiliki fungsi untuk menceritakan sesuatu yang bersifat khayalan atau unreal situation.
Hal tersebut sesuai dengan narrative text yang juga menceritakan kisah-kisah yang berupa khayalan atau fiksi.
artikel terkait: Penjelasan Mudah Simple Past Tense
Setelah mempelajari fungsi, struktur teks, serta ciri-ciri narrative text, sekarang mari kita lihat contoh narrative text.
Contoh Narrative Text
A long time ago in West Java, lived a beautiful girl named Dayang Sumbi. She was smart and witty. Her beauty and intelligence made a prince from the heavenly kingdom of kahyangan desire her as his wife. The prince asked for permission from his father to marry Dayang Sumbi. During that time, the people from Kahyangan could never live side by side to humans, but his father approved on one condition, when they had a child, the prince would have to transform into a dog. The prince accepted the condition.
They got married and lived happily in the woods until Dayang Sumbi gave birth to a baby boy. The prince true to his words changed into a dog named Tumang. Their son was named Sangkuriang. He was very smart and handsome like his father. Every day, he hunted animals and looked fro fruits to eat. One day, while he was hunting, Sangkuriang accidentally killed Tumang. His arrow missed the deer he was targeting and hit Tumang instead. He went home and told his mother about the dog. “What?” Dayang Sumbi was appalled. Driven by sadness and anger, she grabbed a weaving tool and hit Sangkuriang’s head with it. Dayang Sumbi was so sad; she didn’t pay any attention to Sangkuriang and started to cry.
Sangkuriang felt sad and also confused. How could his mother love a dog more than him? Sangkuriang then decided to leave home and went on a journey. In the morning, Dayang Sumbi finally stopped crying. She started to feel better, so she went to find Sangkuriang. But her son was nowhere to be found. She looked everywhere but still couldn’t find him. Finally, she went home with nothing but exhaustion. She fell asleep, and in her dream, she met her husband. “Dayang Sumbi, don’t be sad. Go look for my body in the woods and get the heart. Soak it in water, and use the water to bathe, and as a result you will look young forever,” said the prince in her dream. After bathing with the water used to soak the dog’s heart, Dayang Sumbi looked more beautiful and even younger than before.
As time passed by, Sangkuriang stopped at a village. He met and fell in love with a beautiful girl. He didn’t realize that the village was his homeland and that the beautiful girl was his own mother, Dayang Sumbi. Their love grew naturally and he asked the girl to marry him. One day, Sangkuriang was going on a hunt. He asked Dayang Sumbi to fix the turban on his head. Dayang Sumbi was startled when she saw a scar on his head in the same place where she, years ago, hit Sangkuriang on the head.
After the young man left, Dayang Sumbi prayed for guidance. After praying, she became convinced that the young man was indeed her missing son. She realized that she had to do something to prevent Sangkuriang from marrying her. But she did not wish to disappoint him by cancelling the wedding. So, although she agreed to marrying Sangkuriang, she would do so only on the condition that he provides her with a lake and built a beautiful boat, all in one night.
Sangkuriang accepted the condition without hesitation. He had spent his youth studying magical arts. After the sun went down, Sangkuriang went up a hill. Then he called a group of genies to build a dam around Citarum River and to cut down trees to build a boat. A few moments before dawn, Sangkuriang and his genie servants had almost completed the boat.
Dayang Sumbi, who had been spying on him, realized that Sangkuriang would fulfill the conditions she had set. Dayang Sumbi immediately woke all the women in the village and asked them to wave a long red scarf. All the women in the village were waving red scarfs, making in look as if dawn was breaking. Deceived by false dawn, the cock crowed and farmers rose for the new day.
Sangkuriang’s genie servants immediately dropped their work and ran for cover from the sun, which they feared. Sangkuriang grew furious. With all his anger, he kicked the unfinished boat.
The boat flew and landed in a valley. The boat then became a mountain, called Mount Tangkuban Perahu (tangkuban means upturned or upside down, and perahu menas boat). With his power, he destroyed the dam. The water drained from the lake and became a wide plain that nowadays is referred to as the city called Bandung (from the word bendung, which means dam).
Once upon a time, there lived a little, beautiful girl named Moana in the Motunui Island. Even when she was little, she loved the ocean. She also loved listening to Gramma Tala’s stories. Moana’s favorite was about the trickster demigod Maui, who stole the heart of the mother island Te Fiti. According to Gramma, Maui upset the balance of nature by stealing the heart. More about Moana.
Moana’s dad, Chief Tui, believed the ocean was dangerous. The islanders were forbidden to sail beyond the reef! But little Moana felt a deep connection to the ocean and to all the creatures who belonged in it. She always wanted to help. And the ocean noticed and it gave Moana a special gift. When Chief Tui picked up Moana, she dropped the gift. Luckily, someone else picked it up. It was Gramma Tala! She believed that the ocean’s gift was the heart of Te Fiti.
As Moana grew, she worked hard to help lead her people and follow her father’s rules. But when Moana turned sixteen, Gramma Tala took her aside. “It’s time to learn who you were meant to be,” Gramma said. She led Moana to a hidden cavern full of ancient canoes. When Moana started drumming, BAM! BAM! BAM! she could feel the spirits of her ancestors. They were way-finders-voyagers on the ocean.
Gramma Tala’s last wish was for Moana to journey across the ocean, find Maui and restore the heart of Te Fiti. So, with the heart safe inside her necklace, Moana set sail. But sailing on the open ocean was not easy for Moana-especially when a strom hit!
Moana and her boat washed up on a faraway island when she met Maui the demigod! He was not what Moana expected. Maui stole Moana’s boat. But when he tried to sail away, the ocean made sure Moana went with him. The ocean wanted them to work together.
Maui promised to help her return the heart of Te Fiti only if Moana helped him find his magic fishhook. But first, they had to get past the kakamora, an army of wild coconut-clad bandits. Then, they had to dive into Lalotai, the realm of monsters. Thinking fast, Moana tricked Tamatoa, a crab monster and she and Maui retrieved the missing fishhook.
Along the way, Maui taught Moana how to way-find which is to use the sun, the stars, the moon, and the ocean current to navigate. And when the journey became too difficult, the spirit of Gramma Tala returned. “Know who you are meant to be,” Gramma’s spirit told Moana.
When Moana and Maui finally reached Te Fiti, the monster of the island was gone. Instead, there was a lava monster named, Te Ka. Maui and Moana tried everything, but they could not defeat Te Ka. Then Moana had an idea. Summoning all her courage, Moana gave the heart to Te Ka and Te Ka remembered who she was meant to be. . . She was Te Fiti! With her heart restored, Te Fiti bloomed once again. The world was back in balance.
Moana and Maui said goodbye. Their journey together was complete. Maui transformed into a hawk and flew away. It was time for Moana to return to her people. The young girl from Motunui Island now knew exactly who she was meant to be. She was a daughter, a leader, and a way-finder. She was Moana.
Untuk latihan soal dapat diakses pada link berikut:
That’s all for today.